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“You Oughta Know: Acknowledging, Recognizing, and Responding to the Steps in the Journey Through Dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease” – Chapter 10 Excerpt

You Oughta Know: Recognizing, Acknowledging, and Responding to the Steps in the Journey Through Dementias and Alzheimer's DiseaseIn this eleventh installment of chapter excerpts from the book You Oughta Know: Acknowledging, Recognizing, and Responding to the Steps in the Journey Through Dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease, we look at the tenth step in the journey through dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease.

This post includes an excerpt from chapter 10, which gives comprehensive information on how to acknowledge, recognize, and respond to the tenth step in the journey through dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease: more frequently going back in time (long-term memories) and losing connection with the present (short-term memories and recognition of loved ones).

This chapter discusses why this step occurs and offers practical, real-time, and loving ways we as caregivers should respond and help our loved ones as we negotiate this step in the journey.

This series begins with the forward to the book and an explanation of why I wrote this book and why you should read it.

The series continues with the inclusion of excerpts from Chapter 1, Chapter 2, Chapter 3, Chapter 4, Chapter 5, Chapter 6, Chapter 7, Chapter 8, Chapter 9, and, with this post, Chapter 10.

The steps in the journey through dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease are presented sequentially in the order in which they actually appear in the course of these neurological diseases.

There are no other books that literally walk through each step in sequential order as they emerge in the journey through dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease.

Additionally, there is no other book that discusses:

  1. The process we as caregivers acknowledge each new step – there is an acceptance period that we have to go through
  2. The process we use to guide ourselves and our loved ones with dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease through the recognition phase of each step
  3. The concrete, loving, and practical information on how we should respond and how we can help guide our loved ones’ responses

These are the things that make You Oughta Know: Acknowledging, Recognizing, and Responding to the Steps in the Journey Through Dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease unique and stand alone in the plethora of books about dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease.

going gentle into that good night divider

Excerpt “Chapter 10: ‘Time Reverse and Rewind”

“The next step in the journey with our loved ones with dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease can be difficult to comprehend and adjust to, since it usually appears randomly and unexpectedly. This step is where our loved ones seem to frequently go back in time in memories, in conversations, and in thinking and they often don’t recognize us or know who we are.

I first read Katherine Anne Porter’s The Jilting of Granny Weatherall in high school. It is the story of an 80-year-old woman who has dementia and/or Alzheimer’s Disease. Neither of these names for neurological impairment existed, however, when Porter wrote this short story in 1930. Instead, elderly people were just ‘senile.’

The story made a strong impression on me even as a teenager, even though I never had steady and intimate contact with elderly people (both my parents lost their parents when they were very young and, as only children who were much younger than their cousins, had no aunts and uncles except one on my mom’s side left by the times we kids came along) and had never seen anything that looked like dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease.

I found Granny Weatherall fascinating and I found the juxtaposition of where she was in her own mind versus what was actually going on around her intriguing.

If you have not read the story, you should.”

“You Oughta Know: Acknowledging, Recognizing, and Responding to the Steps in the Journey Through Dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease” – Chapter 9 Excerpt

You Oughta Know: Recognizing, Acknowledging, and Responding to the Steps in the Journey Through Dementias and Alzheimer's DiseaseIn this tenth installment of chapter excerpts from the book You Oughta Know: Acknowledging, Recognizing, and Responding to the Steps in the Journey Through Dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease, we look at the ninth step in the journey through dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease.

This post includes an excerpt from chapter 9, which gives extensive information on how to acknowledge, recognize, and respond to the ninth step in the journey through dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease: balance, stability, and falls.

This chapter discusses all of the reasons that the neurological damage of these diseases affect balance, stability, and lead to an marked increase in fall risks and actual falls.

This is the ninth step in the journey through dementias and Alzheimer’s disease.

This chapter also discusses practical, real-time, and loving ways we as caregivers should respond and help our loved ones as we negotiate this step in the journey.

This series begins with the forward to the book and an explanation of why I wrote this book and why you should read it.

The series continues with the inclusion of excerpts from Chapter 1, Chapter 2, Chapter 3, Chapter 4, Chapter 5, Chapter 6, Chapter 7, Chapter 8, and, with this post, Chapter 9.

The steps in the journey through dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease are presented sequentially in the order in which they actually appear in the course of these neurological diseases.

There are no other books that literally walk through each step in sequential order as they emerge in the journey through dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease.

Additionally, there is no other book that discusses:

  1. The process we as caregivers acknowledge each new step – there is an acceptance period that we have to go through
  2. The process we use to guide ourselves and our loved ones with dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease through the recognition phase of each step
  3. The concrete, loving, and practical information on how we should respond and how we can help guide our loved ones’ responses

These are the things that make You Oughta Know: Acknowledging, Recognizing, and Responding to the Steps in the Journey Through Dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease unique and stand alone in the plethora of books about dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease.

going gentle into that good night divider

Excerpt “Chapter 9: ‘I Keep on Fallin’”

“While many of our loved ones with dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease are in good shape physically when these diseases begin to manifest themselves, they eventually reach this step of the journey where there is a great risk of falling. Attached to this risk is the possibility of broken bones – especially hips, which may be so badly damaged that our loved ones become confined to wheelchairs or bed for the rest of their lives – and head injuries, which can be fatal.

The reasons that our loved ones are increasingly susceptible to falls are:

  1. Gait changes

    Gait changes are common as dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease progress in our loved ones. One of the most characteristic gait changes is shuffling. This is especially pronounced in our loved ones who have Lewy Body dementia and Parkinson’s Disease, but it becomes a feature of all dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease by this step of the journey.

    Shuffling is when our loved ones don’t pick their feet up off the floor to take steps, but instead slide them across the floor to move forward. One of the inherent dangers in this is catching the front part of shoes on the floor – especially carpet – and falling forward.

    Shuffling can be both a result of neurological impairment – not remembering how to take normal steps to walk – and muscle weakness from lack of use.

    The most important thing we can do for our loved ones with dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease to help minimize shuffling is to have a physical therapist on our care teams to help regain muscle strength and work on gait normalization. Additionally, if possible, we should be helping our loved ones maintain muscle strength and walk with them daily encouraging them, both by example and by instruction, to use a normal stepping gait to walk.”

“You Oughta Know: Acknowledging, Recognizing, and Responding to the Steps in the Journey Through Dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease” – Chapter 8 Excerpt

You Oughta Know: Recognizing, Acknowledging, and Responding to the Steps in the Journey Through Dementias and Alzheimer's DiseaseIn this ninth installment of brief excerpts from each chapter in the book You Oughta Know: Acknowledging, Recognizing, and Responding to the Steps in the Journey Through Dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease, we look at the eighth step in the journey through dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease.

This post includes an excerpt from chapter 8, which thoroughly discusses how to acknowledge, recognize, and respond to the eighth step in the journey through dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease: wandering and wanting to go home.

This chapter discusses in-depth the reasons that wandering and wanting to go home are part of the eighth step in the journey through dementias and Alzheimer’s disease. It also discusses practical, real-time, and loving ways we as caregivers should respond and help our loved ones as we navigate through this step in the journey.

This series begins with the forward to the book and an explanation of why I wrote this book and why you should read it.

The series continues with the inclusion of excerpts from Chapter 1, Chapter 2, Chapter 3, Chapter 4, Chapter 5, Chapter 6, Chapter 7, and, with this post, Chapter 8.

The steps in the journey through dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease are presented sequentially in the order in which they actually appear in the course of these neurological diseases.

There are no other books that literally walk through each step in sequential order as they emerge in the journey through dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease.

Additionally, there is no other book that discusses:

  1. The process we as caregivers acknowledge each new step – there is an acceptance period that we have to go through
  2. The process we use to guide ourselves and our loved ones with dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease through the recognition phase of each step
  3. The concrete, loving, and practical information on how we should respond and how we can help guide our loved ones’ responses

These are the things that make You Oughta Know: Acknowledging, Recognizing, and Responding to the Steps in the Journey Through Dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease unique and stand alone in the plethora of books about dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease.

going gentle into that good night divider

Excerpt “Chapter 8: ‘Can’t Find My Way Home’”

“Wandering is the next step of the journey our loved ones with dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease go through. Wandering can be characterized by endless walking within the safety of a house or facility, but more often it is characterized by going outside and either walking or driving (if our loved ones are still driving) aimlessly until our loved ones are lost and either can’t or don’t know they need to or how to come back.

There are many stories of elderly people with dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease who were wandering on foot or in a vehicle who died before they could be located. These people have been hit by vehicles while walking in the middle of the street, walked into woods and gotten lost, or have driven vehicles off the road over embankments or into bodies of water.

Often, the impulsive nature of wandering – a sudden need to be stimulated or being on a mission to go somewhere or find something – leads our loved ones with dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease to just pick up and go, often without adequate clothing in cold weather, and often in the middle of the night.

Wandering may be tied to visual hallucinations as well, especially if the visual hallucination is of a loved one. When that person leaves, our loved ones may want to follow and go with them.

However, the main impetus of wandering seems to be rooted in the desire to go home. Our loved ones with dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease begin talking frequently about wanting to go home – even if they’re in a home they’ve lived in for many years – and wanting to find loved ones, many of whom have been dead for years.

It’s important to understand the context of where our loved ones with dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease are neurologically and memory-wise. While dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease affect short-term memory and inhibit new memories from being formed, long-term memories are and stay, for most of the duration, intact. And those long-term memories are where our loved ones begin spending a lot of time.

Therefore, home, for our loved ones is most often their childhood or early adulthood homes, and those homes and the people who were there are what our loved ones are looking for and where they want to go.

“You Oughta Know: Acknowledging, Recognizing, and Responding to the Steps in the Journey Through Dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease” – Chapter 7 Excerpt

You Oughta Know: Recognizing, Acknowledging, and Responding to the Steps in the Journey Through Dementias and Alzheimer's DiseaseIn this eighth installment of brief excerpts from each chapter in the book You Oughta Know: Acknowledging, Recognizing, and Responding to the Steps in the Journey Through Dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease, we look at the seventh step in the journey through dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease.

This post includes an excerpt from chapter 7, which provides a comprehensive look at how to acknowledge, recognize, and respond to the seventh step in the journey through dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease: sleep changes and disruptions.

This chapter shows that changes to sleep patterns and sleep disturbances, which includes sundowning, are all part of the seventh step in the journey through dementias and Alzheimer’s disease.

This chapter also discusses how this step impacts our loved ones and us as caregivers and the practical, real-time, and loving ways we as caregivers should respond and help our loved ones walk through this step in the journey.

This series begins with the forward to the book and an explanation of why I wrote this book and why you should read it.

The series continues with the inclusion of excerpts from Chapter 1, Chapter 2, Chapter 3, Chapter 4, Chapter 5, Chapter 6, and, with this post, Chapter 7.

The steps in the journey through dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease are presented sequentially in the order in which they actually appear in the course of these neurological diseases.

There are no other books that literally walk through each step in sequential order as they emerge in the journey through dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease.

Additionally, there is no other book that discusses:

  1. The process we as caregivers acknowledge each new step – there is an acceptance period that we have to go through
  2. The process we use to guide ourselves and our loved ones with dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease through the recognition phase of each step
  3. The concrete, loving, and practical information on how we should respond and how we can help guide our loved ones’ responses

These are the things that make You Oughta Know: Acknowledging, Recognizing, and Responding to the Steps in the Journey Through Dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease unique and stand alone in the plethora of books about dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease.

going gentle into that good night divider

Excerpt “Chapter 7: ‘Don’t Know If It’s Day Or Night’”

“Changes and disruptions in sleep are the next step in the journey our loved ones go through with dementias and Azheimer’s Disease. Included in this step is a phenomenon called sundowning, which we’ll explain the logic and science behind.

But first we need to talk about the science of sleep. All humans have a 24-hour internal clock that is known as our circadian clock (the term circadian rhythm refers to any biological process that completes a 24-hour cycle).

This clock, shown below, is a complex and coordinated system of neurology, hormones, environmental factors, and routines that are established from the time we are born.

circadian rhythm sundowning melatonin going gentle into that good night

Everyone’s circadian clock is unique, but each follows the general pattern shown above. In fact, the clock shown above is the ideal and the circadian clock that humans basically followed until the Industrial Revolution took place in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

Since the full transition into the Industrial Revolution, human life and the adherence to this natural circadian clock has been altered and challenged because one of the side-effects of the Industrial Revolution was the development of artificial lighting (gas in the 19th century and electricity in the 20th century), which enabled lighting to be available 24 hours a day.

This was the byproduct of greed that served the captains of industry well (instead of limiting work hours to daylight hours only, artificial lighting enabled factories, foundries, mining operations, etc. to operate on a 24/7 schedule), but the human race definitely got the short end of the stick here.

Because the body is designed genetically, neurologically, hormonally, and environmentally to function in sync with the 24-hour circadian clock shown above, disrupted sleep and sleep deprivation has a chaotic effect on the body, even in otherwise-healthy people.

Time and again, science and medicine have shown a significant increase in accidents and serious injuries among shift workers who work at night. This includes not only production workers, but also professionals such as medical personnel. There is also a considerable amount of evidence that shows night shift workers are much likely to be injured or killed in driving accidents because they have a higher incidence of falling asleep behind the wheel going to and from work.

The most disruptive shift to the human body is the graveyard shift (usually 11 pm to 7 am). By the time these workers start their shift, the body is fully prepared (the hormone melatonin relaxes the body and mind for sleep beginning around 9 pm) to sleep. Forcing the body to do the complete opposite of what is it naturally designed to do is often counterproductive and very destructive to human health.”

“You Oughta Know: Acknowledging, Recognizing, and Responding to the Steps in the Journey Through Dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease” – Chapter 6 Excerpt

You Oughta Know: Recognizing, Acknowledging, and Responding to the Steps in the Journey Through Dementias and Alzheimer's DiseaseIn this seventh installment of brief excerpts from each chapter in the book You Oughta Know: Acknowledging, Recognizing, and Responding to the Steps in the Journey Through Dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease, we look at the sixth step in the journey through dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease.

This post includes an excerpt from chapter 6, which provides a extensive look at how to acknowledge, recognize, and respond to the sixth step in the journey through dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease: sudden and dramatic mood swings in both directions.

This chapter shows that frequent, unexpected, and severe mood mood swings are the sixth step in the journey through dementias and Alzheimer’s disease. This chapter discusses how this step impacts our loved ones and us as caregivers. It also discusses practical, real-time, and loving ways we as caregivers should respond and help our loved ones traverse this step in the journey.

This series begins with the forward to the book and an explanation of why I wrote this book and why you should read it.

The series continues with the inclusion of excerpts from Chapter 1, Chapter 2, Chapter 3, Chapter 4, Chapter 5, and, with this post, Chapter 6.

The steps in the journey through dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease are presented sequentially in the order in which they actually appear in the course of these neurological diseases.

There are no other books that literally walk through each step in sequential order as they emerge in the journey through dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease.

Additionally, there is no other book that discusses:

  1. The process we as caregivers acknowledge each new step – there is an acceptance period that we have to go through
  2. The process we use to guide ourselves and our loved ones with dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease through the recognition phase of each step
  3. The concrete, loving, and practical information on how we should respond and how we can help guide our loved ones’ responses

These are the things that make You Oughta Know: Acknowledging, Recognizing, and Responding to the Steps in the Journey Through Dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease unique and stand alone in the plethora of books about dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease.

going gentle into that good night divider

Excerpt “Chapter 6: ‘How You Suffered for Your Sanity’”

“Dramatic and sudden mood swings are part and parcel of the journey through dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease, and they begin to materialize during the step of paranoia, but they can continue throughout the course of these diseases.

There can be several triggers for these mood swings: environmental, physiological, perceptual, and neurological. Sometimes all of these can be in play at the same time, but normally the trigger is singular.

Let’s take a look at each of the areas that can trigger a mood swing in our loved ones suffering with dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease and how we can respond to and/or eliminate them.

  1. Environmental changes are often the trigger for sudden and dramatic mood swings. These can include something as seemingly simple as moving something out of a familiar place or having our loved ones in a setting they are not familiar with. It can also include the presence of strangers (or people they don’t remember) and it can include being asked to do something new or unfamiliar.

    For example, one of the most common instances of these kinds of mood swings is with medical personnel. Most nurses, nurse practitioner, physician’s assistants, and doctors have stories about routine care they were providing for a patient with dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease that quickly deteriorated into yelling, screaming, aggression, and sometimes even physical assault.”

“You Oughta Know: Acknowledging, Recognizing, and Responding to the Steps in the Journey Through Dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease” – Chapter 5 Excerpt

You Oughta Know: Recognizing, Acknowledging, and Responding to the Steps in the Journey Through Dementias and Alzheimer's DiseaseIn this sixth installment of brief excerpts from each chapter in the book You Oughta Know: Acknowledging, Recognizing, and Responding to the Steps in the Journey Through Dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease, we look at the fifth step in the journey through dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease.

This post includes an excerpt from chapter 5, which provides a thorough look at how to acknowledge, recognize, and respond to the fifth step in the journey through dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease when paranoia emerges.

This chapter shows why and how paranoia is part of the journey through dementias and Alzheimer’s disease, the impact it has on our loved ones, and how we as caregivers should respond to them both medically and personally with kindness, gentleness, and understanding.

This fifth step requires a lot of love, a lot of commitment, a lot of sheer determination, a lot of perseverance, and a lot of courage on our part as caregivers because this, of all the steps, can be most brutal emotionally to us personally because it will literally chew us up and spit us out on a continual basis all the way through it.

This chapter offers practical and accessible information to help us and our loved ones navigate this step successfully and intact.

This series begins with the forward to the book and an explanation of why I wrote this book and why you should read it.

The series continues with the inclusion of excerpts from Chapter 1, Chapter 2, Chapter 3, Chapter 4, and, with this post, Chapter 5.

The steps in the journey through dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease are presented sequentially in the order in which they actually appear in the course of these neurological diseases.

There are no other books that literally walk through each step in sequential order as they emerge in the journey through dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease.

Additionally, there is no other book that discusses:

  1. The process we as caregivers acknowledge each new step – there is an acceptance period that we have to go through
  2. The process we use to guide ourselves and our loved ones with dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease through the recognition phase of each step
  3. The concrete, loving, and practical information on how we should respond and how we can help guide our loved ones’ responses

These are the things that make You Oughta Know: Acknowledging, Recognizing, and Responding to the Steps in the Journey Through Dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease unique and stand alone in the plethora of books about dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease.

going gentle into that good night divider

Excerpt “Chapter 5: ‘Confusion Never Stops, Closing Walls and Ticking Clocks’”

“Pervasive paranoia is the next step in the journey of dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease. At some point, hallucinations and paranoia tend to overlap – the hallucinations, especially if they’re scary will elicit panic and anxiety – but paranoia eventually stands on its own as a distinct step in the journey.

Paranoia has a complicated root system that we’ll break down into its components so that we understand why it occurs and what it looks like.

  1. One of the roots of paranoia in our loved ones with dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease is confusion and fear. There is self-awareness, at this point, within our loved ones that something is really wrong. They don’t know what it is, but the feedback around them, spoken and unspoken, tells them that they can’t trust themselves. 

    Persistent hallucinations leave them with blurred lines between what’s real and what’s not. Constant corrections to the information our loved ones believe is true creates widening doubt. Repeated proofs that disprove what our loved ones believe to be accurate create insecurity. 

    All of this also creates anger and fear because humans are wired to trust themselves – their reasoning, their assessments, their intuitions, their processing of the external world – more than to trust any other human being. When that innate ability is constantly challenged and proven faulty, it’s scary and it is infuriating.”

“You Oughta Know: Acknowledging, Recognizing, and Responding to the Steps in the Journey Through Dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease” – Chapter 4 Excerpt

You Oughta Know: Recognizing, Acknowledging, and Responding to the Steps in the Journey Through Dementias and Alzheimer's DiseaseThis is the fifth installment in a series of posts that includes a brief excerpt from each chapter as a preview of You Oughta Know: Acknowledging, Recognizing, and Responding to the Steps in the Journey Through Dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease.

This post includes an excerpt from chapter 4, which discusses in detail the fourth step in the journey through dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease where visual and auditory perception is affected, resulting in hallucinations.

This chapter shows how these hallucinations present themselves, what the impact is on our loved ones, and how we as caregivers should respond to them both medically and personally with kindness, gentleness, and honesty.

Although lying and dishonesty in this step is overwhelmingly encouraged by support groups and resource books – they call these “fiblets” – I am adamantly opposed to any kind of dishonesty with our loved ones with dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease.

When we practice dishonesty of any kind, we destroy our character and our trustworthiness. Our loved ones entrusted us with their lives. Lying to them breaks that trust.

And once dishonesty becomes a habit in one area because it temporarily makes a difficult situation – hallucinations, for example – seem easier, we will eventually, by default, begin to employ it as our response in other areas of our lives where and when difficulties arise until it affects every area of our lives. That’s how we peeps work, unfortunately.

I know this fourth step will catch us and our loved ones off guard as it emerges, but this chapter offers practical and accessible information to navigate this step successfully.

This series begins with the forward to the book and an explanation of why I wrote this book and why you should read it.

The steps in the journey through dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease are presented sequentially in the order in which they actually appear in the course of these neurological diseases.

There are no other books that literally walk through each step in sequential order as they emerge in the journey through dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease.

Additionally, there is no other book that discusses:

  1. The process we as caregivers acknowledge each new step – there is an acceptance period that we have to go through
  2. The process we use to guide ourselves and our loved ones with dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease through the recognition phase of each step
  3. The concrete, loving, and practical information on how we should respond and how we can help guide our loved ones’ responses

These are the things that make You Oughta Know: Acknowledging, Recognizing, and Responding to the Steps in the Journey Through Dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease unique and stand alone in the plethora of books about dementias and Alzheimer’s Disease.

going gentle into that good night divider

Excerpt “Chapter 4: ‘When Men on the Chessboard Get Up and Tell You Where to Go'”

“Well-formed and insightful hallucinations (either manifestations of things and/or people who are not there or the perception that still objects are moving) are overwhelmingly prevalent in our loved ones suffering from Lewy Body dementia, where Lewy bodies are present in the temporal area of the brain (particularly in the amygdala and parahippocampal regions).

limbic system structure you oughta know going gentle into that good night books

The amygdala is linked to aggression and emotions, and is involved in emotional learning, forming long-term memories, and the hormone secretion (along with the pituitary gland) that tells the adrenal glands to release the copious amounts of adrenaline associated with the “flight-or-fight” response to fear, anxiety, and panic.

The parahippocampal (surrounding the hippocampus) region of the brain is responsible for encoding and retrieving memories of landscapes and scenery (faces and facial recognition happens in the fusiform gyrus region of the brain).

Early hallucinations are often seen in short-lived episodes of delirium that are triggered by stress (hospitalizations are the most frequent source of this kind of stress and the subsequent episodes of delirium).”